Tuesday, January 14, 2020
Business Studies Motivation Report Essay
1.1- The following report is selected to discover and explain the motivational theory know as Theory Z. Theory Z is a motivation theory which was discovered and created by Dr. William Ouchi and is known as the so-called Ã¢â¬ËJapanese ManagementÃ¢â¬â¢ style. Dr. William OuchiÃ¢â¬â¢s theory Z was based on Dr. W. Edwards DemingÃ¢â¬â¢s famous Ã¢â¬Å"14 pointsÃ¢â¬ . Deming was an American scholar whose management and motivation theories were rejected in the United States, he then went on to help lay the foundation of Japanese organizational development during their expansion in the world economy in the 1980s, from there on this is where Dr William Ouchi created the motivational theory Ã¢â¬ËTheory ZÃ¢â¬â¢ 1.2Here I have created a timeline of the motivational theories to show how they have evolved. 1943 Ã¢â¬â Abraham Maslow Ã¢â¬â A theory of Human Motivation. This is MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s hierarchy of needs where there is a pyramid, at the bottom of the pyramid there is the physiological things required such as breathing, food, water. At the top there is the self-actualization, such as morality, creativity, problem solving. 1960 Ã¢â¬â Douglas McGregor Ã¢â¬â Theory X and Theory Y. Theory X and Theory Y consist of two very different types of management. Theory X believes that no one enjoys work and employees are lazy and require force so their work it complete. Theory Y believes that people enjoy work and has a friendlier atmosphere. McGregor also combined his theory with MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s in saying the bottom half of the triangle was Theory X needs and the top half was Theory Y needs. 1980 Ã¢â¬â Dr. William Ouchi Ã¢â¬â Theory Z. This theory is fairly recent and has developed from all of the theories. Dr. William Ouchi has combined all the motivational theories and crea ted the theory Z, this theory is what I will be doing my report on. In the 1970s and 1980s, many United States industries lost market share to international competitors, particularly Japanese companies. Concerns about the competitiveness of U. S. companies led some to examine Japanese management practices for clues to the success enjoyed by many of their industries. This led to many articles and books purporting to explain the success of Japanese companies. It was in this atmosphere that Theory Z was introduced into the management lexicon. 1.3Theory ZÃ¢â¬â¢s main attributes consist of combined motivational theories. This theory makes assumptions that the workers tend to want to build happy and intimate working relationships. Theory Z also states that theory Z workers need to be supported by the company and they highly value a working environment. These workers have a very well developed sense of order, discipline and an obligation to work hard. Unlike McGregorÃ¢â¬â¢s Theory X workers, Theory Z employees can be trusted and to work hard so long as their managers can be trusted to support them according to OuchiÃ¢â¬â¢s Theory Z. I will be focusing on applying this theory to the workforce in the Holiday centre as the organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s communication is not of a good standard as well as the company being unorganised. 1.4This Theory fits the organisation I have chosen as the within this workplace there needs to be good working relationships as well as trust, yet there still needs to be discipline and an obligation to work hard. The organisation that I am fitting this theory to is a Holiday ParkÃ¢â¬â¢s swimming pool located in a rural town. Application 2.1Within the workplace of the Holiday ParkÃ¢â¬â¢s Swimming pool sector, there are issues between the pool managers and the staff (lifeguards) on poolside. The pool managers have adopted Douglas McGregorÃ¢â¬â¢s Theory Y motivation theory. The pool managers have built strong relationships with the staff so therefore making it difficult for the pool managers to come across as strict. William OuchiÃ¢â¬â¢s theory Z motivation theory is suitable for this situation as it combines strong relationships between staff, like a Ã¢â¬Ëclan cultureÃ¢â¬â¢ but the theory still retains some elements of bureaucratic hierarchies, such as formal authority relationships, performance evaluation, and some work specialization. Therefore the pool managers would still be able to have their relationship but still keep their authority over the lifeguards. 2.1.1 Pros Ã¢â¬â This theory would apply well to this organisation because it keeps the respect of the hierarchies within the business as well as keeping the relationships that have been built throughout work 2.1.2 Cons Ã¢â¬â The cons of this theory is that having this relationship between the pool manager and lifeguards existing at all could cause some problems to their relationship outside of work due to the lifeguards disapproving of being told what to do by their friend or by being jealous of their friend having a higher paid, more responsibilities job. Douglas McGregorÃ¢â¬â¢s theory X would be more suitable for the pool managers. 2.2The lifeguards within this company are unmotivated and have low morale, this then results in the lifeguards being upset and strict, stopping people from enjoying themselves. This is a big issue for the company because with unhappy staff comes unhappy customers. The lifeguards require motivation and need to feel more like a Ã¢â¬Ëclan cultureÃ¢â¬â¢, they need job satisfaction; this is where Theory Z would be suitable. The theory would suit to this situation because Theory Z encourages and emphasizes individual contribution and responsibility. Theory Z also emphasizes communication, collaboration, and consensus in decision making. If the lifeguards had theory Z applied to them, they would feel more inclined to work. 2.2.1 Pros Ã¢â¬â The pros of this is that with the lifeguards having their own responsibility and contributions, they will feel more satisfaction and recognised by the company, it will give the employees self-confidence therefore resulting in a stronger workforce. 2.2.2 Cons Ã¢â¬â The cons of this theory applying to this situation is that the staff could get too much on their hands and take on to responsibilities and result in making a decision before consulting anyone else, the individual contribution and responsibilities could be taken advantage of. Conclusion The theory fits the situations well due to the theory applying relationships to the workforce yet still retaining the job authority so the respect is not lost from a lower staff member to a member of a higher job. The theory also applies individual contribution and creates a self of value towards the company by the staff as they feel their opinion is wanted, as well as their confidence within the workforce and company increases.